Write a 1,000-1,250-word reflection essay on how to effectively utilize research in order to guide decision-making processes in the counseling profession

As a counselor, you will be making decisions on how to select evidence-based treatments. In your essay, demonstrate the decision-making process that you will use to choose one evidence-based treatment over another. Write a 1,000-1,250-word reflection essay on how to effectively utilize research in order to guide decision-making processes in the counseling profession. Include the following in your essay:

  1. A discussion about how qualitative and quantitative research reports guide the decision-making process.
  2. A discussion about the key characteristics of effective writing and publication in counseling and psychological research. How do these characteristics guide the decision-making processes?
  3. Select a diagnosis and include an example of how research could assist in treatment.
  4. Include a minimum of three scholarly resources
  5. APA Format

What were the positives and negatives from this experiment?  

APA format, 4 pages in length (excluding cover page, abstract, and reference list)

Answer the following questions:

1. What was this experiment about?

2. What were the results?

3. What were the positives and negatives from this experiment?  For example, do you feel it was ethical?  Do you think the same results would be obtained today?

4. What did you learn from this experiment?  Were you surprised by the results?

What is psychology, and how did it grow?

Chapter 1

Introduction to the Science of Psychology

 

(Part 1)

Thursday, 8/20/20

 

Course Time Schedule (Tuesday, Thursday: 9 – 10:15 a.m.)

 

 

August 18, Class begins (syllabus, ch. 1 Learning

Objectives/reading guide)

 

Today: Thur, 8/20 Introduction to the science of psychology Ch. 1

(Lecture Notes, Part 1 posted)

 

25, 27 Part 2, Review

 

 

September 1, 3 Test 1

Biology and Behavior Ch. 2

Non-Attendance Census Report Due in

Registrar’s office

 

 

Read/Study the lecture notes

 

View the three videos

 

While you are learning/studying the notes, refer to the textbook (relevant part of the chapter) for further information.

Questions We Will Be Addressing
in This Chapter (see Learning Objectives for more details)

  • What is psychology, and how did it grow?
  • Why don’t all psychologists explain behavior in the same way?
  • How does your cultural background influence your behavior?

 

  • How can critical thinking save you money?
  • How do psychologists learn about people?

 

Questions We Will Be Addressing
in This Chapter (cont’d.)

  • What does it mean when scientists announce that a research finding is “significant”?
  • Do psychologists deceive people when they do research?

 

I. The World of Psychology:
An Overview

What is psychology, and how did it grow?

 

What Is Psychology?

    • The science that seeks:
    • To understand behavior and mental processes
    • To apply this understanding in the service of human welfare

 

  • Psychology is the science that seeks to understand behavior and mental processes, and to apply that understanding in the service of human welfare.

 

Subfields of Psychology

  • Cognitive
  • Biological
  • Personality
  • Developmental
  • Quantitative
  • Clinical, Counseling, and Community
  • Educational
  • School
  • Social
  • Industrial/ Organizational
  • Health
  • Sport
  • Forensic
  • Engineering
  • Environmental

 

    • Subfields of Psychology

 

Psychologists in different subfields of psychology study different topics.

    • Cognitive psychologists study basic mental processes and their relationship to behavior in areas such as sensation, perception, learning, memory, judgment, decision making, and problem solving.

 

2. Biological or physiological psychologists or neuroscientists study how biological structure and function affect behavior and mental processes.

mental processes over the life span.

    • Personality psychologists study individuality—the uniqueness of each person—and whether some combinations of personality traits predict patterns of behavior.

 

  • Developmental psychologists study and describe changes in behavior and mental processes over the life span.
  • Social psychologists study the ways that people influence one another.

6. Quantitative psychologists use statistical methods to describe, analyze, and interpret data collected by psychologists in other subfields.

7. Clinical psychologists generally have a Ph.D. in psychology, provide therapy, and many study the causes of disorders.

 

 

8. Counseling psychologists have either a Ph.D. or a master’s degree in psychology and work as mental health counselors.

 

Applied subfields of Psychology

9. Community psychologists try to help prevent stressful conditions that lead to disorders. Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in abnormal psychology.

 

10. Educational psychologists conduct research and develop theories about teaching and learning.

 

11. School psychologists specialize in testing and diagnosing learning disabilities, and establish programs to improve student achievement and success.

    • Industrial-organizational psychologists study factors that affect the efficiency, productivity, and satisfaction of workers and the organizations that employ them.

 

  • Engineering psychologists or human factors psychologists, study interactions between human and the computers/machines (e.g., the design of computer keyboards, Internet web sites, aircraft instrument panels) that make them more logical, easier to use, and less likely to cause errors..

Others include health psychologists, sports psychologists, forensic psychologists, environmental psychologists.

 

Research methods in Psychology

A Brief History of Psychology

  • Roots in philosophy dating back to the time of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
  • In 1700s (p. 9: 1600s was incorrect), Locke, Berkeley, and Hume advocated philosophical view known as empiricism—the idea that knowledge comes to us only through our experiences and observations
  • Birth of modern scientific psychology credited to Wilhelm Wundt in 1879

 

Videos 2

 

2. History of Psychology

 

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=video+history+of+psychology&qpvt=video+history+of+psychology&view=detail&mid=703DA2CC846D53E64032703DA2CC846D53E64032&FORM=VRDGAR

 

 

C. A Brief History of Psychology

1. Interest in behavior and the mind can be traced back to ancient Greek philosophers (e.g., Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle).

a) Scientific psychology has its roots in philosophy.

2. In the 1700s philosophers (e.g., John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume) argued for empiricism—that knowledge comes through experience and observation.

A person is born a tabula rasa—a “blank slate,” on which experiences of life “write” to give knowledge through direct sensation.

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

  • First formal psychology laboratory, Leipzig, 1879
  • Used laboratory science methods to study consciousness
  • Began psychology’s transformation from a philosophy to a science
  • Used introspection to study conscious experience

 

Structuralism

  • Early Advocate: Edward Titchener (Cornell U.), trained by Wundt
  • Goals: To study conscious experience and its structure
  • Methods: Experiments; introspection
  • Applications:

“Pure scientific research”

  • Spurred development of psychological laboratories

 

A Stimulus for Introspection

  • Be an “Introspector”
  • Ignoring what this object is, try to describe only your conscious experience of it

Figure 1.4

A Stimulus for Introspection

Look at this object and try to ignore what it is. Instead, try to describe only your conscious experience of it, such as redness, brightness, and roundness and how intense and clear these sensations and images are. If you can do this, you would have been an excellent research participant in Titchener’s laboratory.

Gestalt Psychology

  • Early Advocate: Max Wertheimer (1912)
  • Goals: To describe organization of mental processes
  • “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”
  • Methods: Observation of sensory/perceptual phenomena
  • Applications:
  • Understanding of visual illusions
  • Laid some groundwork for humanistic and cognitive psychology

 

Psychoanalysis

  • Early Advocate: Sigmund Freud (late 1880s – early 1900), Vienna, Austria
  • Goals:
  • Explain personality and behavior.
  • Develop techniques for treating mental disorders
  • Methods: Study of individual cases
  • Applications:
  • Development of psychotherapy.
  • Emphasis on childhood as important in later personality

 

Functionalism

  • Early Advocate: William James (late 1870s, 1890s)
  • Goals: To study how the mind works in allowing an organism to adapt to the environment
  • Methods: Naturalistic observation of animal and human behavior
  • Applications:

Child psychology; educational and industrial psychology

Study of individual differences

 

Behaviorism

Early Advocates: John B. Watson (1913)

 

Goals: To study only observable behavior and explain behavior via learning principles

 

B. F. Skinner (1930s)

    • Skinner: operant conditioning, functional analysis of behavior

 

  • Methods: Observation of the relationship between environmental stimuli and overt responses
  • Applications:
  • Behavior modification; improved teaching methods

 

Approaches to the Science
of Psychology

Why don’t all psychologists explain behavior in the same way?

 

Video 3. Perspectives in Psychology

 

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=+perspectives++psychology+video+u+tube&&view=detail&mid=873E827C787891D6513D873E827C787891D6513D&FORM=VRDGAR

Approaches to the Science of Psychology

    • Biological approach
    • Assumes behavior and mental processes are largely shaped by biological processes. Subfield: biological or physiological psychology

 

  • Evolutionary approach
  • Assumes that behavior and mental processes are largely the result of evolution through natural selection

 

Approaches to the Science of Psychology (cont’d.)

  • Psychodynamic approach
  • Assumes human behavior reflects mostly unconscious conflicts between impulses to satisfy our instincts vs. society’s rules

Psychodynamic theory, Freudian approach, other modern versions

  • Behavioral approach
  • Focuses mostly on observable behavior and how that behavior is formed through learning
  • Contemporary approaches: social-cognitive, cognitive behavioral

 

Approaches to the Science of Psychology (cont’d.)

  • Cognitive approach (1970s)
  • Focuses on how our behavior is affected by the ways we take in, mentally represent, process, and store information; using computer as an analogy of the mind/brain

Information processing approach

  • Humanistic approach (1960s/70s), Phenomenological approach
  • Sees behavior as derived from: individual’s unique perception of the world, capacity to choose how to think and act, seek to grow toward full potential

 

Human Diversity and Psychology

How does your cultural background influence your behavior?

 

Impact of Sociocultural
Diversity on Psychology

  • Behavior and mental processes are shaped by sociocultural factors, such as gender, ethnicity, social class, and childhood culture
  • Culture is an organizing and stabilizing influence
  • Indigenous psychology – understand behavior and mental processes as they occur in different cultural contexts

 

    • In individualist cultures people focus on and value personal goals rather than group goals.

 

    • In collectivist cultures people often tend to think of themselves as part of family or work groups rather than as individuals.

 

c) Most countries are multicultural, hosting many subcultures within their borders.

 

 

Part 2: next class session -Tuesday, 8/25

Research Methods in Psychology

 

How do psychologists learn about people?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1.4

A Stimulus for Introspection

Look at this object and try to ignore what it is. Instead, try to describe only your conscious experience of it, such as redness, brightness, and roundness and how intense and clear these sensations and images are. If you can do this, you would have been an excellent research participant in Titchener’s laboratory.

Describe the concept of social categorization, and explain how outcomes affect group performance

APA format

Additional 2 reference minimum

Must reference Textbook

Must include page # for in-text citations

Write a 300- to 350-word response to the following:

  • Describe the concept of social categorization, and explain how outcomes affect group performance.

Reference: Stagnor, C. (2016). Social Groups in Action and Interaction (2nd ed.) Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.

Explain how the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct can be used to guide decisions in the ethical application of these technologies

Technology and Psychology Professionals

Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum, be certain to have read all the required resources for this week. In recent years, the psychology profession has been greatly influenced by various forms of technology. The prevalence of psychology professionals using technology to market themselves and engage, socialize, and interact with others has created new opportunities and challenges. This is particularly true with regard to potential interactions with clients via these technologies. Given the exponential growth with which these technological advancements are permeating our world, we expect to see the proliferation of new issues, challenges, and opportunities within the realms of psychological research and practice.

In your initial post:

  • Provide an overview of the relevant issues, ongoing trends, challenges, and future opportunities for psychology professionals and the populations they serve.
  • Explain how the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct can be used to guide decisions in the ethical application of these technologies.
  • Construct clear and concise arguments using evidence-based psychological concepts and theories to explain how current technological and policy shifts may influence trends in psychological research and practice.
  • Evaluate potential work settings where the use of technologies promotes ease and convenience for both psychology professionals and the populations they serve.

What are the potential responsibilities of the psychology professionals as providers of care with regard to the use of these technologies? Does the increase in ease, convenience, and experience satisfaction for the parties involved outweigh any potential negative outcomes?

Resources to use

Articles

American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct: Including 2010 amendments. (Links to an external site.)Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

  • This document outlines a series of ethical standards, guidelines, and aspirational goals to guide psychologists.

Bratt, W. (2010). Ethical considerations of social networking for counsellors. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 44(4),335–345.

  • This article considers the ethical and professional implications of social networking for counselors.

Clinton, B. K., Silverman, B.C., & Brendel, D. H. (2010). Patient-targeted Googling: The ethics of searching online for patient information. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 18(2),103–112. doi:10.3109/10673221003683861

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the University Library. This article discusses the ethical and professional considerations of searching online for personal information about clients.

DiLillo, D., & Gale, E. B. (2011). To Google or not to Google: Graduate students’ use of the Internet to access personal information about clients. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 5(3), 160–166. doi:10.1037/a0024441

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the University Library. This article explores several ethical issues related to searching for personal information about clients online, including issues pertaining to confidentiality and informed consent.

Kaslow, F. W., Patterson, T., & Gottlieb, M. (2011). Ethical dilemmas in psychologists accessing internet data: Is it justified?Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42(2),105–112. doi:10.1037/a0022002

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the University Library. This article explores a myriad of ethical dilemmas in psychologists accessing Internet data about clients, and also investigates the efficacy of gathering personal information about clients online.

Kolmes, K. (2012). Social media in the future of professional psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43(6),606–612. doi: 10.1037/a0028678

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the University Library. The profession of psychology is greatly influenced by technology and social media. This article provides an overview of current and future trends in this area.

Lehavot, K., Barnett, J. E., & Powers, D. (2010). Psychotherapy, professional relationships, and ethical considerations in the MySpace generation. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41(2),160–166. doi:10.1037/a0018709

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the University Library. This article describes new ethical dilemmas related to social media for psychology professionals. A strong focus of this article is on the potential impact to the therapeutic relationship.

Tunick, R. A., Mednick, L., & Conroy, C. (2011). A snapshot of child psychologists’ social media activity: Professional and ethical implications and recommendations. Professional Psychology: Research andPractice, 42(6),440–447. doi:10.1037/a0025040

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the University Library. This article proposes several guidelines for professional practice based on research around child psychologists’ social media activity.

Van Allen, J., & Roberts, M. (2011). Critical incidents in the marriage of psychology and technology: A discussion of potential ethical issues in practice, education, and policy. Professional Psychology: Research andPractice, 42(6),433–439. doi:10.1037/a0025278

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the Univeersity Library. This article discusses psychologists’ use of technology, with a particular focus on consequences and strategies related to ethical issues in policy, education, and practice.

Do you consider the theory of  evolution proven, evolving, or borderline science?

The  reading for this week includes the following statement: “It is  emphasized that scientists, through their investigations, do not prove  anything” (GCU, 2014). A similar statement was made in an open letter to  the editor of Science: “There is always some uncertainty associated  with scientific conclusions; science never absolutely proves anything”  (Glieck, et al., 2010). While technically true when considering the  scientific method, it may be more beneficial to employ a graduated  approach by classifying scientific information as “proven, evolving,  [or] borderline science” (Moghissi, Amin, & McNulty, 2010).

Read  the article, “Does Science Never Absolutely Prove Anything?” Then  consider the theory of evolution. Do you consider the theory of  evolution proven, evolving, or borderline science? Must be 5-7 complete sentences.  Support your answer.

If that is the case, how confident can we be with the scores AND the decisions made with those scores? 

hate to sound like a broken record, but every test has error.  If that is the case, how confident can we be with the scores AND the decisions made with those scores?  There are several statistics that should be included when looking at scores for decision making purposes. Can you present a few of these?

Discuss what you found most interesting in the article you read, and why

PAPER TOPIC:   https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/identity#what-is-identity

Please read article and complete the following instructions

Paper must be at least 650 words in length, excluding titles, headings, your name etc (only real content counts!), and no longer than 100 words in length. Set the margins to 1 inch on all sides, and make it times new roman 12 point font with double spacing (basic APA style). If the paper does not meet those guidelines, you will lose points! Please make sure everything for this is assignment is in your own words.

Turnitin software will be checking this for plagiarism (turnitin indexes all papers ever submitted through turnitin,  )

For this paper, you will write out your responses to these following questions

:a.Discuss what you found most interesting in the article you read, and why

.b.Discuss what you felt was the most important take-away message from the article, and why you feel this way.

c.What specific theory (e.g., be more specific than just saying “memory”) do you feel this article is most related to from our course so far?

Explain why you feel it is connected.

d. What is a 2nd specific theory from the course that you feel this article is most related to (and explain why you see this connection)?

e.What aspect of the article did you feel has the most applicability to a college freshman? Why?

Describe at least two ways the material you have learned in this unit applies to driving a car (refer to the Arizona Driver License  Manual located within the weekly readings)

In this Topic, you have learned the terms used to describe motion (e.g.,  distance, speed, and acceleration) as well as Newton’s laws explaining motion. Describe at least two ways the material you have learned in this unit applies to driving a car (refer to the Arizona Driver License  Manual located within the weekly readings). Has what you have learned in this Topic changed how you drive? Must be a minimum of 5-7 complete sentences. If so, please explain.

Identity three types of pricing strategies

Pricing Strategies:  Identity three types of pricing strategies. Select a good or service and compare the prices of two different companies associated with the goods or service. Why do different organizations have different pricing strategies for the same good or service? Respond to at least 3 of your classmates.