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The Action of The Thyroid Hormone
The thyroid gland is a vital hormone gland that plays a crucial role in the human body’s metabolism, growth, and development. It helps regulate many body functions by constantly releasing a steady number of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream. The thyroid hormones produced include triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) released when needed. T3 and T4’s main activity is to boost the basal metabolic rates of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and fats in the body. One of the thyroid hormone effects is carbohydrate metabolism, where T3 and T4 stimulate almost all aspects of carbohydrate metabolism. This includes enhancing the insulin-dependent entry of glucose into the cells and increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to generate free glucose (McCance & Huether, 2018). The increase of these thyroid hormones also stimulates fat mobilization leading to increased concentrations of fatty acids in plasma. They also enhance fatty acids oxidation in various tissues, and the plasma concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides inversely correlate with thyroid hormone levels. One of the diagnostic indications of hypothyroidism is an increase in blood cholesterol concentration.
Thyroid hormone also affects body temperature. These hormones affect blood vessel dilation, which affects the rate at which heat can escape the body. The more dilated blood vessels are, the faster heat can escape. Therefore, individuals suffering from hyperthyroidism will experience fever, while hypothyroidism will experience a decrease in body temperature. T3 and T4 hormones are also involved in brain maturation during fetal development by regulating actin polymerization during neuronal development. It also enhances growth in mammals since this physiologic process depends upon multiple endocrine controls. Thyroid hormone increases the heart rate, cardiac contractility, and cardiac output. They also promote vasodilation, which leads to enhanced blood flow to many organs, and the hormones also affect the catecholamine actions.
McCance, K., L., & Huether, S., E. (2018). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby Inc.
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In order for the body to function appropriately certain hormones have to be released and regulated within the body. Thyroid hormones play a large part in the body concerning multiple functions. The thyroid hormone functions on a negative feedback loop, which involves the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and the thyroid gland (McCance & Huether, 2018). The appropriate function of this negative feedback loop is critical for the body. Thyroid hormone has a significant role in growth, maturation and function of the tissue within the body (McCance & Huether, 2018).
Thyroid Hormones and the Body
As stated previously the thyroid hormone plays a part in many of the functions within the body. Thyroid hormone plays a role in normal growth and development, metabolism, neurological function, cardiovascular function, and respiratory function (McCance & Huether, 2018). For example, the cardiovascular system will experience hypertension as well as hypertension when there is dysfunction involving the thyroid hormone (Razvi et al., 2018). Besides, the cardiovascular system thyroid hormones also plays a significant role in metabolism. Thyroid hormone play an active part in the breakdown of lipids and glucose in the body, which give the body a basal metabolism (Erdogan, 2020). Now, if someone who has hypothyroidism (not enough thyroid hormone) they will have a slower metabolism and be a little heavier; but on the other hand a person with hyperthyroidism (too much thyroid hormone) will have a very high metabolism and typically be very thin (McCance & Huether, 2018). Finally, thyroid hormone also plays a role in muscle function with the body, as well as the skin surrounding the muscle (McCance & Huether, 2018).
Erdogan, R. (2020). Effects of endurance workouts on thyroid hormone metabolism and biochemical markers in athletes. BRAIN. BROAD RESEARCH IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND NEUROSCIENCE, 11(3), 136–146. https://doi.org/10.18662/brain/11.3/114
McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2018). Pathophysiology – e-book: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby.
Razvi, S., Jabbar, A., Pingitore, A., Danzi, S., Biondi, B., Klein, I., Peeters, R., Zaman, A., & Iervasi, G. (2018). Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular function and diseases. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 71(16), 1781–1796. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.02.045