International Perspectives in Community Health

I need these questions answered in about 200 words each and not plagiarized. Please include each answer with references. 

  

MODULE 1

Q1

Defining international or global health is important and some consider global health synonymous with public health. Select one of the following two statements:

1. Global health is public health requiring similar training and research methods.

2. Global health is a separate discipline requiring specific training and research methods.

Identify at least two arguments that support the selected statement and provide sources to support those arguments. Identify and discuss one historical event that is important in how global health is understood today and how that event supports your argument. For one of your substantive responses, identify another classmate that selected the opposite statement and provide at least one point of agreement and one point of disagreement.?

Q2

Poverty is central to health and development in low-income and middle-income countries. State your definition of poverty prior to studying public health. Based on this definition, what would be the focus of poverty alleviation solutions? Based on the relational and spiritual definition of poverty, discuss how the focus of solutions would change to include a holistic approach. Identify an example of a health program or solution that integrates a relational definition of poverty. Watch the video on “Defining Poverty” to help in responding to this discussion question.

RESOURCES

Read Chapter 4 in For the Love of God: Principles and Practice of Compassion in Missions.

Read “The Stages of International (Global) Health: Histories of Successes or Successes of History?” by Birn, from Global Public Health (2009). URL:https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsbl&AN=RN243322709&site=eds-live&scope=site

Watch the “Introduction to PUB 655” video in the Participatory Community Development playlist, located in the Student Success Center. This video will explain the overall purpose and focus for this course. The course begins with a broad perspective and then concentrates specifically on engaging communities and vulnerable populations with a focus on Christian health missions. URL: https://www.gcumedia.com/lms-resources/student-success-center/v3.1/#/media-element/CONHCP/002E95E4-E032-E811-8F95-005056A072B6

Watch the “Defining Poverty” video in the Participatory Community Development playlist, located in the Student Success Center, in preparation for responding to the discussion question in this topic. The video provides an alternative definition of poverty based on relationships rather than only material need. This definition informs one’s approach to poverty and engaging lower-income communities. URL: https://www.gcumedia.com/lms-resources/student-success-center/v3.1/#/media-element/CONHCP/002E95E4-E032-E811-8F95-005056A072B6

Read “Towards a Common Definition of Global Health” by Koplan, Bond, Merson, Reddy, Rodriguez, Sewankambo, and Wasserheit, from The Lancet (2009).URL: https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2809%2960332-9

Read “Global Health Is Public Health” by Fried, Bentley, Buekens, Burke, Frenk, Klag, and Spencer, from The Lancet (2010). URL: http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(10)60203-6.pdf

Read “Poverty Is a Lie,” by Todd, from Mission Frontiers (2011). URL: https://www.missionfrontiers.org/pdfs/33-4-poverty-is-a-lie.pdf

Read “What Is Poverty?” located on The Chalmers Center website. URL: https://www.chalmers.org/our-work/redefining-poverty/what-is-poverty

Watch “Helping Without Hurting – Part 1: Reconsidering the Meaning of Poverty – LifeChurch.tv,” by Life.Church (2014), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a339VZRE3CM

Read “The History of Foreign Aid,” by Phillips (2013), located on the ReliefWeb website. URL: https://reliefweb.int/report/world/history-foreign-aid

Read “How AIDS Invented Global Health,” from New England Journal of Medicine (2013). URL: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp1305297

Read “Global Health Players: Organizations Involved in International Health,” located on the Global Health Education website. URL: https://globalhealtheducation.org/56_nutrition_in_global_health/

Read “Donor Motives for Foreign Aid,” by Bandyopadhyay and Vermann, from Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review (2013). URL: https://files.stlouisfed.org/files/htdocs/publications/review/13/07/bandyopadhyay.pdf

MODULE 2

Q1

Review the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals, then evaluate the following statement by Katja Iversen, CEO of Women Deliver: “The SDGs are not a menu, they are a roadmap. We need to ask ourselves: Who can we do this with, and who does this affect?”

Discuss the difference between a roadmap and menu in reference to the SDGs and why a roadmap analogy makes more sense. In your response, reference at least two different goals between Goals 4 and 17 that are connected to health. Additionally, identify two key targets for reaching Goal 3 and why you think these are critical. Discuss two actions you could take to help make progress toward reaching the SDGs as a global society. Refer to the United Nations’ “The Lazy Person’s Guide to Saving the World” in the Topic Materials.

Q2

Visit “Global: Both Sexes, All Ages, 2016, DALYs” on the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation GBD Compare Data Visualization Hub website. Compare the primary causes of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from countries in two different socio-demographic index levels or economic regions. Identify three social or political-economic differences that help explain the differences you observed. Discuss the utility of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure as a composite measure of health. Why is the DALY helpful given the different categories of Communicable, Noncommunicable, and Injury when it comes to comparing mortality and morbidity?

STUDY MATERIALS

Read Chapter 11 in For the Love of God: Principles and Practice of Compassion in Missions.

Explore the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) page of the United Nations website. Study all 17 goals in preparation for a discussion question in this topic. URL: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/

Explore the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation website.URL: http://www.healthdata.org/

Explore the Data Repository on the Global Health Observatory (GHO) page of the World Health Organization (WHO) website. URL: http://www.who.int/gho/database/en/

Explore the Health Data Tools and Statistics page of the Partners in Information Access for the Public Health Workforce website. URL: https://phpartners.org/health_stats.html

Explore the Global Burden of Disease page, located on The Lancet website. URL: http://www.thelancet.com/gbd

Read “The Lazy Person’s Guide to Saving the World,” located on the United Nations website. URL: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/takeaction/

Watch “Chris Murray and the Global Burden of Disease,” by Gates (2015), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_kfOygmfxA

Watch “Causes of Death: Global Burden of Disease Study 2015,” by The Lancet TV (2016), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ERvFgjBHizo

Watch “What Does a $100 Million Public Health Data Revolution Look Like?” by TEDMED (2013), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mususV-jMFk

Watch “The State of Global Health,” by Global Health With Greg Martin (2013), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n4mz5r6KiYo

Watch, “The DALY Show, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY),” by Kahn (Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies) (2014), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Exce4gy7aOk

Explore “Global: Both Sexes, All Ages, 2016, DALYs, ” located on the GBD Compare/Viz Hub page of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation website. URL: https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/

MODULE 3

Q1

Globalization involves several features, including governance structures, communication, mobility, technology, and the environment. Based on the readings for this topic, identify two features of globalization that you think are the most important and discuss one example for each as to how it influences health. Identify a health issue that was not a global threat in the past but, due to changes in globalization, is now a global threat. Discuss what countries might do to prepare for this emerging health threat considering the issue of human rights in low-income and middle-income countries.

Q2

Public health and health care systems are impacted by globalization the exchange of new ideas, and opportunities to influence the larger field of global health. As you consider the factors related to globalization, discuss how low-income and middle-income countries should navigate the balance in building strong public health systems alongside an efficient health care system. What three pieces of advice would you give the Minister of Health in a country like Zambia or Nepal when it comes to the structure and integration of health care and public health?

STUDY MATERIALS

Read “The Health Impacts of Globalisation: A Conceptual Framework,” by Huynen, Martens, and Hilderink, from Globalization and Health (2005). URL:https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsdoj&AN=edsdoj.b7baa09b107485d92675f0d9840766e&site=eds-live&scope=site

Read “Participant Guidelines: Systems Tools for Complex Health Systems: A Guide to Creating a Causal Loop Diagrams,” by de Pinho (Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health) (2015), located on the World Health Organization (WHO) website. URL: http://www.who.int/alliance-hpsr/resources/publications/CLD_Course_Participant_Manual.pdf

Read “Guide: How to Process Map,” by the Agency for Clinical Innovation (2015). URL:https://www.aci.health.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/279088/Guide_on_How_to_Process_Map.pdf

Read “Building From Common Foundations: The World Health Organization and Faith-Based Organizations in Primary Healthcare,” by Bandy et al. (2008), located on the World Health Organization website. URL: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43884/1/9789241596626_eng.pdf

Read “Globalization of Health Care: Designing, Developing, and Implementing a Just World Class Health System in a Frontier Market,” by Waruingi et al., from Journal of Global Health Care Systems (2013). URL:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259577174_Globalization_of_Health_Care_Designing_Developing_and_Implementing_a_Just_World_Class_Health_System_in_a_Frontier_Market

Read “The Global Health System: Actors, Norms, and Expectations in Transition,” by Szlezak et al., from PLOS Medicine (2010). URL:http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1000183&type=printable

Read “Assessing the Health Impact of Transnational Corporations: Its Importance and a Framework,” by Baum et al., from Globalization and
Health (2016).URL:https://globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12992-016-0164-x?site=globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com

Read “Framing International Trade and Chronic Disease,” by Labonte, Mohindra, and Lencucha, from Globalization and Health (2011). URL: https://globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1744-8603-7-21?site=globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com

Read “Declaration of Alma-Ata,” by the International Conference on Primary Health Care (1978), located on the World Health Organization (WHO) website. URL: http://www.who.int/publications/almaata_declaration_en.pdf

Read “A View of Health Care Around the World,” by Wallace, from Annals for Family Medicine (2013). URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3596027/pdf/0110084.pdf

Read “Health Care Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries,” by Mills, from New England Journal of Medicine (2014). URL: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1110897

Read “The WHO Health Systems Framework,” located on the World Health Organization (WHO) website. URL: http://www.wpro.who.int/health_services/health_systems_framework/en/

Read “Five Capitalist Democracies and How They Do It,” by Frontline (2008), located on the PBS website. URL: https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sickaroundtheworld/countries/

Explore the Management Sciences For Health website. URL: https://www.msh.org/

MODULE 4

Q1

Social and economic inequalities lead to imbalances in opportunities for advancement and growth. These imbalances lead to a greater sense of insecurity and lack of control. Microfinance or village banking programs are approaches used to encourage shared risk, security in savings, and opportunities for capacity building. Discuss the potential of such microfinance programs in lower-income communities where irregular income is common and their impact on reducing social and economic disparities. In your response, identify a specific example of such a program in a low-income or middle-income country and critically discuss one challenge and one benefit of the program. Evaluate the relationship between economic microfinance programs and social inequalities..

Q2

Inequalities lead to feelings of despair, depression, and anxiety often associated with substance use disorders. Consider the following scenario: Mr. Banda is a middle-aged man living in rural Malawi with a wife and three young children. He often travels to find work while his wife and children maintain the family farm to sustain themselves. Recently, Mr. Banda found out he was HIV positive without access to HIV antiretroviral therapy in the village. He became severely depressed and turned to alcohol to help him cope as an available social outlet. Over time, he started to drink on credit against his family’s harvest. When harvest time came, the tavern owner showed up at Mr. Banda’s home demanding half of his harvest to pay off his debt. Mr. Banda has come to you to ask for help. How would you respond to Mr. Banda after he shared his story with you? Discuss three social or economic inequalities influencing Mr. Banda’s actions and options. How would you leverage the strengths of faith-based organizations or

churches in the area to address these factors influencing Mr. Banda’s options assuming others in the community are going through similar situations? Watch the “Aid and Development” video to help you in answering this discussion question.

STUDY MATERIALS

Read Chapter 8 in For the Love of God: Principles and Practice of Compassion in Missions.

Read “Mental Health Services Provision in Low and Middle-Income Countries,” by Rathod et al., from Health Services Insights (2017). URL:https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edb&AN=126273972&site=eds-live&scope=site

Watch the “Aid and Development” video in the Participatory Community Development playlist, located in the Student Success Center, in preparation for responding to a discussion question in this topic. This video discusses how humanitarian aid and charity influence the definition of development. A faith-based approach to holistic development is important to integrate participation and strong relationships with community development work that continues beyond relief and rehabilitation activities.URL: https://www.gcumedia.com/lms-resources/student-success-center/v3.1/#/media-element/CONHCP/002E95E4-E032-E811-8F95-005056A072B6

Read “Faith-Based Organizations and Development: Prospects and Constraints,” by Olarinmoye, from Transformation (2012). URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0265378811427985

Read “Faith-Based and Secular Humanitarian Organizations,” by Ferris, from International Review of the Red Cross (2005). URL: https://jliflc.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/irrc_858_ferris.pdf

Read “Poverty and Mental Disorders: Breaking the Cycle in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries,” by Lund et al., from The Lancet (2011). URL: http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(11)60754-X.pdf

Read “Principles of Excellence in Integral Mission, located on the Accord Network website. URL: http://www.accordnetwork.org/integral/

MODULE 5

Q1

Cultural competence and cultural humility are central in engaging and communicating with community members and leaders. Provide your own definition of cultural humility in the context of public health. How does your definition compare to the points made about cultural humility in the Topic Material entitled “Reflections on Cultural Humility”? In addition to cultural humility, describe one other principle necessary when communicating public health content to engage communities to act. Describe a real example of this principle in action..

Q2 

Sustainable community health strategies in economically diverse communities constitute the goal of public health. An international perspective is helpful to consider the diverse cultural beliefs, social systems, and values that make up a community. True transformation happens from within the community and includes intentional focus on the whole person and surrounding influences. Asset-based community development (ABCD) is an approach used to help facilitators focus on community assets rather than only discussing problems and needs. Evaluate and critique the ABCD approach. Is it realistic to think that poor communities have existing and unrecognized assets that can lead to economic opportunities? Discuss two benefits and two challenges when it comes to the effectiveness of ABCD in mobilizing communities for development.

STUDY MATERIALS

Read Chapter 5 in For the Love of God: Principles and Practice of Compassion in Missions.

Read “Connecting Communities and Complexity: A Case Study in Creating the Conditions for Transformational Change,” by Durie and Wyatt, from Critical Public Health (2013). URL:https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsbl&AN=RN330816879&site=eds-live&scope=site

Read “Cultural Humility: Measuring Openness to Culturally Diverse Clients,” by Hook, Davis, Owen, Worthington, and Utsey, from Journal of Counseling Psychology (2013).  URL:https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.338261279&site=eds-live&scope=site

Read “Reflections on Cultural Humility,” by Waters and Asbill, from American Psychological Association CYF News (2013). URL: http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/newsletter/2013/08/cultural-humility.aspx

Read “Tyranny/Transformation: Power and Paradox in Participatory Development,” by Christens and Speer, from Forum: Qualitative Social Research (2006). URL: http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/91/189

Read “A Basic Guide to ABCD Community Organizing,” by McKnight, located on the DePaul University website. URL: https://resources.depaul.edu/abcd-institute/publications/publications-by-topic/Documents/A%20Basic%20Guide%20to%20ABCD%20Community%20Organizing(3).pdf

Read “Wholistic Worldview Analysis: Understanding Community Realities,” by Jayakaran (2007), located on the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) website. URL: http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G02908.pdf

Read “Participatory Analysis for Community Action (PACA) Training Manual,” from the Peace Corps Information Collection and Exchange, Publication No. M0053(2007), located on the Peace Corps website. URL: http://files.peacecorps.gov/multimedia/pdf/library/PACA-2007.pdf

Read “Empowering Communities: Participation Techniques for Community-Based Programme Development: Volume 2: Participant’s Handbook,” by De Negri, Thomas, Ilinigumugabo, Muvandi, and Lewis(1998), located on the Participatory Methods website. URL:http://www.participatorymethods.org/sites/participatorymethods.org/files/Empowering%20communities_de%20Negri.pdf

Read “Generic Processes of Appreciative Inquiry,” located on The Center for Appreciative Inquiry website.URL: https://www.centerforappreciativeinquiry.net/more-on-ai/the-generic-processes-of-appreciative-inquiry/

Watch “Appreciative Inquiry,” by Townsin (2013), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QzW22wwh1J4

Read “Ten Seed Technique,” by Jayakaran, located on the Dr. Ravi Jayakaran website. URL: http://ravijayakaran.com/home.htm

Read “Toolkit,” from the Asset-Based Community Development Institute, located on the DePaul University website.URL: https://resources.depaul.edu/abcd-institute/resources/Pages/tool-kit.aspx

Read “Open Questions,” by Goetzman, located on the Global Learning Partners, Inc. website.
URL: https://online.nph.net/media/documents/TeachtheWord/open-questions.pdf

MODULE 6

Q1

Discuss three of the nine Sphere Core Humanitarian Standards. Identify the one that you think is most often neglected in the case of natural disasters or complex humanitarian emergencies. Discuss characteristics of complex humanitarian emergencies in your response. Share a real example of how these standards were (or were not) applied in a recent humanitarian crisis.

Q2

Sign up to receive the daily e-newsletter from Global Health NOW. Identify one story or current situation from Global Health NOW or the United National Refugee Agency about displaced people. Comment on the cause of the displacement, what international governments and nongovernmental agencies are doing to serve the people physically and mentally, and gaps that the faith-based community and churches could fill. Discuss the link between relief and development in your response and your suggestions for sustainable health promotion and development among the displaced population.

STUDY MATERIALS

Read Chapters 9 and 12 in For the Love of God: Principles and Practice of Compassion in Missions.

Read “Core Humanitarian Standard on Quality and Accountability,” by the Core Humanitarian Standard Alliance, Group URD, and the Sphere Project (2014), located on the Core Humanitarian Standard website.URL: https://corehumanitarianstandard.org/files/files/Core%20Humanitarian%20Standard%20-%20English.pdf

Read “Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: A Review of Epidemiological and Response Models,” by Burkle, from Journal of Postgraduate Medicine (2006). URL: http://www.jpgmonline.com/article.asp?issn=0022-3859;year=2006;volume=52;issue=2;spage=110;epage=115;aulast=Burkle

Read “The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the ACCRA Agenda for Action,” (2005/2008), located on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) website. URL: http://www.oecd.org/dac/effectiveness/34428351.pdf

Watch “Relief, Rehabilitation, and Development,” by Corbett, located on the Chalmers Center website. URL: https://www.chalmers.org/media/entry/relief-rehabilitation-and-development

Read “Relationship Between Humanitarian and Development Aid,” by Hinds (2015), located on the GSDRC Applied Knowledge Services website. URL: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/HDQ1185.pdf

Read “Remaking the Case for Linking, Relief, Rehabilitation, and Development: How LRRD Can Become a Practically Useful Concept for Assistance in Difficult Places,” by Mosel and Levine (2014), located on the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) website. URL: https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/8882.pdf

Read “Integrating Mental Health Into Existing Systems of Care During and After Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: Rethinking the Experience,” by Ventevogel, Perez-Sales, Fernandez-Liria, and Baingana, from Intervention (2011). URL: https://www.interventionjournal.com/sites/default/files/Ventevogel%20et%20al_Intro.pdf

Explore the UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency website.URL: http://www.unhcr.org/

Explore the Refugee Highway website.URL: ht