Discussion week 5

For this Discussion, conduct a search in the library and select an article depicting a behavioral perspective to health care administration leadership. Think about particular strengths and limitations of this perspective. Consider how this perspective might relate to the Trait Theory or Skills Approach of leadership.

By Day 3

Post a brief explanation of the behavioral perspective reflected in the article you selected. Then, explain the strengths and limitations of this perspective. Finally, explain how this perspective you selected relates to both Trait Theory and the Skills Approach.

Labor Relations

Question A

Many major strikes used military personnel during the struggle. Do you think this was fair? Was it ever neutral? Do you think it was ethical? Explain why or why not.

Question B

In May 1884, May 1, 1886 was established as the effective date for the eight-hour day. This is the modern origin of May Day. Previous to this class, were you aware of the origin of May Day? What do you think would happen if you initiated a 7-hour work day, or four day work week?

Answer both questions with credible references.


Part 1: Apply the IRAC Formula to Sowards v. Norbar, Inc., 1992. Prepare and post a brief review of the issue, rule, analysis, and conclusion.

                Issue – Did the driver’s manual (employee handbook) provided to and acknowledgment signed by the appellee, form an employment contract?

                Rule – “An at-will employment contract may be modified by the provisions of an employee handbook where the parties manifest an intention to be bound by the terms therein.” (Sowards v. Norbar, Inc., 1992)

                Analysis – The language in the driver’s manual (employee handbook) had very specific “formal discipline” policy which provided the steps for progressive discipline.  The language indicated that the policy was intended to be more than a guideline.  Additionally, The Vice-President of the company is quoted as saying that the company “lived by” the language of the driver’s manual.  The appellee was also required to sign a written acknowledgment stating he received a copy of the manual.  The appellee continued to work for the company after signing the acknowledgment indicating the acceptance to be bound by the terms of the manual.  These facts show an intention by both parties to be bound the terms laid out in the manual and the at-will employment contract has thus been modified by the provision of the manual.    

                Conclusion – The language and the practice of living by the driver’s manual (employee handbook) created an employment contract.   

Part 2: Based on your understanding of Sowards v. Norbar, Inc., which depicts privacy and employee handbook issues, answer the following questions:

    How might an effective employee handbook reduce litigation costs within an organization?

                An effective employee handbook would have a contract disclaimer so that the at-will status of an employee would be clearly stated.  It is also important to have the employee sign an at-will disclaimer “acknowledging the company can terminate them at any time and bypass discipline process” (HR Specialist: Employment Law, July 2018).  Clearly defining the status and having the employee acknowledge reduces litigation cost associated with determining if the employee handbook is an employment contract.  It would also have policies but not detailed procedures.  The specific language of disciplinary process in Sowards v. Nobar, Inc. allowed the argument to be made that it was more than a guideline resulting in litigation cost.

    How important for the HRM professional is understanding the mission and function of an organization? Why?

It is very important for the HRM professional to understand the mission and function of an organization because these will be important factors in the development, implementation, and interpretation of policies.    

    When should an employee handbook be updated? Why?

If laws change that are applicable to your location your handbook should be updated.  Your handbook should not conflict with any applicable laws.   It should also be updated when practices or expectations change.  If a practice or expectation changes but the policy or employee handbook is not updated to reflect this change then it is hard to argue that an employee should be held to the new standard.  For example, at a previous employer an expectation changed for a certification that an employee needed to obtain from 6 months to within 90 days of hire.  The practice had gone on for several years and was verbally discussed in the interviews, but the policy was never updated to reflect this change.  They had an employee who did not obtain the certification within the 90 days.  The supervisor wanted to terminate because the employee did not meet the requirements of the position.  However, when the policy was pulled it still had 6 months listed.  It would not have been a good risk for the company to proceed with the termination given that in writing the policy gave an additional 3 months to complete the certification.

    Who should be involved in the creation of the handbook? What should be considered?

When creating a handbook leadership and HR should be involved.  However, the organization’s attorney should “review your handbook to make sure you haven’t accidentally removed at-will protection” (HR Specialist: Employment Law, July 2018).   I think it would also be good to have a focus group of employees from different areas of the organization to get different perspectives involved.   The policies should be general guidelines and realistic. 

week 4 520


Motivation is the psychological process that arouses and directs behavior. There are three theories that will help us understand the motivation of employees in the workplace:

  • Goal-setting theory suggests behavior can be motivated with specific, challenging goals that are obtainable. The key to goal-setting theory is ensuring employees understand what is expected and accept the goals.
  • Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s personal ability to do a task. There is a lot to be said to scoring high in this trait. People who are confident about their ability tend to succeed, whereas those who doubt their ability tend to fail.
  • Reinforcement theory explains how behavior can be altered by administering positive or negative consequences to actions of employees. Behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated, and behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated.

Step 2 – Post a Response

Respond to the following.

  • Take a moment to think about what it would take to motivate you to achieve your goals at work, which theory would you use and why?
  • In reflecting on either an experience at work or with a family or friend, how can you motive them to achieve the goals in their lives? Which motivational theory would you use and why?

boyer pages 1-47 critical outline

need critical outline and analysis 

Labor relations and competitive bargaining


Prepare an essay response at least one page in length that answers the following questions:

  • What is the European Union’s Social Charter?
  • Why is it important for U.S. firms dealing with European unions to be aware of this?


Prepare an essay response of at least one page in length that addresses the following items:

  • What factors distinguish the labor relations system in the public sector from that in the private sector?
  • Propose a public-sector labor relations system for the employees of the city government.
    • What would it borrow from the private sector?
    • What would it not be able to borrow? Why?
    • How would you modify your system to account for specific aspects of city government? Why?

References should be Five years old of less. 

Final Paper

Write a 5-6 page paper that demonstrates a clear understanding as well as analysis of a topic that relates to the content of this course: Law in the Managerial Environment. To receive full credit, it is important that you follow the guidelines provided in the description of the assignment (see module 01 final paper requirements for more details) and the rubric. In addition, please review the final paper rubric prior to submitting this assignment.

Final Paper RubricPreview the document

For the paper, you must integrate information found in peer reviewed, scholarly references as defined below. Remember that this is a scholarly paper, so you will need to ensure your paper aligns with the APA 6th edition writing style. In addition, you cannot use 1st person in this (or any) scholarly paper. Also, do not use “dot com” or wiki references. You are expected to showcase the comprehension of your topic in relation to a focus area(s) of this class.  

 Below are the expectations for this assignment:

  • APA 6th edition format
  • Title page
  • 5-6 pages of body
  • 8-10 peer reviewed, scholarly references. These references must be clearly cited within the body of your paper. Your textbook can be used as a reference but must be in addition to the 8-10 sources.  For the purposes of this course “Peer reviewed, scholarly references” also includes state, federal, and administrative cases, decisions, and opinions; statutes and regulations; constitutions; as well as Restatements and other legal summations of common law.
  • Reference page

Your submission will go through turnitin. Turnitin evaluates the originality score of your paper. Your turnitin score should be 20% or less.  

Week 1 Discussion


Supporting Lectures:

Review the following lectures:

  • The Evolving Employee-Employer Relationship
  • Workplace Torts

Discussion Questions

Before beginning work on this discussion forum, please review the link Doing Discussion Questions Right, the expanded grading rubric for the forum below, and any specific instructions for this topic.

Before the end of the week, begin commenting on at least two of your classmates’ responses. You can ask technical questions or respond generally to the overall experience. Be objective, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress. Submit your responses in the Discussion Area.


Choose one of the following discussion questions.

Discussion Question 1

  • Identify and discuss one exception to the employment-at-will doctrine.

Discussion Question 2

  • Describe one commonly found workplace tort and provide a current news story detailing a successfully brought suit for the tort selected.

To support your work, use your course and textbook readings and also use the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

Your initial posting should be addressed in 500–1000 words as noted in the attached PDF. Submit your document to this Discussion Area by the due date assigned. Be sure to cite your sources using APA format.

Write 50 words about each of the HRM following topics


· Analysis and design of work

· Recruitment and selection

· Training and development

· Performance management

· Compensation and benefits

· Employee relations/Labor   relations

· Personnel policies

· Employee data and information   systems

· Legal compliance

· Support for business strategy


Job Characteristics Model

•skill variety

•task identity




Strategy Formulation

Strategy Implementation



Selection Method Standards 






Further Analysis

Please review the DQ forum for this week. Select 2-3 postings from your peers to analyze in your personal assignment response. For your personal assignment this week;

Write a 3 page summary on your analysis of the discussion comments and how you believe this content has increased your ethical self-awareness. Please include alternatives, analysis, application, and action.

The assignment should be submitted as a Word document and APA format is required. The title page and reference page are not counted in the 3 page requirement.